dijous, 15 d’octubre de 2015

THE CULTIVATED MAN Here someone may think : This process of cultivation is evidently a long, slow, artificial process ; I prefer the genius, the man of native power or skill, the man whose judgment is sound and influence strong, though he cannot read or wr ite the born inventor, orator, or poet. So do we all. Men have always reverenced prodigious inborn gifts, and always will. Indeed, barbarous men always say of the possessors of such gifts : These are not men, they are gods. But we teach ers who carry on a system of popular education, which is by far the most complex and valuable invention of this century, know that we have to do, not with the highly gifted units, but with the millions who are more or less capable of being cultivated by the long, patient, artificial training called education. For us and our system, the genius is no standard, but the cultivated man is. To his stature we and many of our pupils may in time attain. There are two principal differences between the present ideal of cultivation and that which prevailed at the beginning of the nineteenth cen tury. All thinkers agree that the horizon of the human intellect has widened wonderfully during the past hundred years, and that the scientific method of inquiry, which was known to but very few when the nineteenth century began, has been the means of that widening. This method has be come indispensable in all fields of inquiry, in cluding psychology, philanthropy, and religion; and therefore intimate acquaintance with it has become an indispensable element in culture. As Matthew Arnold pointed out more than a gen eration ago, educated mankind is governed by two passions one the passion for pure know ledge, the other the passion for being of service or doing good. Now, the passion for pure know ledge is to be gratified only through the scientific method of inquiry. In Arnold s phrases the first step for every aspirant to culture is to endeavor to see things as they are, or " to learn, in short, the will of God." The second step is to make that will prevail, each in his own sphere of action and influence. This recognition of science as pure knowledge, and of the scientific method as the universal method of inquiry, is the great addition made by the nineteenth century to the idea of culture. I need not say that within that century what we call science, pure and applied, has trans formed the world as the scene of the human drama; and that it is this transformation which has compelled the recognition of natural science as a fundamental necessity in liberal education. The most convinced exponents and advocates of humanism now recognize that science is the "paramount force of the modern, as distinguished from the antique and the mediaeval spirit," * and that "an interpenetration of humanism with science, and of science with humanism, is the condition of the highest culture." A second modification of the earlier idea of cultivation was advocated by Ralph Waldo Em erson more than two generations ago. He taught that the acquisition of some form of manual skill and the practice of some form of manual labor were essential elements of culture. This idea has more and more become accepted in the system atic education of youth ; and if we include ath letic sports among the desirable forms of manual skill and labor, we may say that during the last two CENTURIES SEE John Addington Symonds, Culture. To produce the cultivated man, or at least the man capable of becoming cultivated in after-life, has long been supposed to be one of the funda mental objects of systematic and thorough edu cation. The ideal of general cultivation has been one of the standards in education. It is often asked : Will the education which a given insti tution is supplying produce the cultivated man ? Or, Can cultivation be the result of a given course of study ? In such questions there is an implica tion that the education which does not produce the cultivated man is a failure, or has been mis conceived, or misdirected. Now, if cultivation were an unchanging ideal, the steady use of the conception as a permanent test of educational processes might be justified; but if the culti vated man of to-day is, or ought to be, a distinctly different creature from the cultivated man of a century ago, the ideal of cultivation cannot be appealed to as a standard without preliminary ex planations and interpretations. It is the object of this paper to show that the idea of cultivation in the highly trained human being has undergone substantial changes during the last century. I ought to say at once that I propose to use the term " cultivated man " in only its good sense in Emerson s sense. In this paper, he is not to be a weak, critical, fastidious creature, vain of a little exclusive information or of an uncommon knack in Latin verse or mathematical logic ; he is to be a man of quick perceptions, broad sym pathies, and wide affinities ; responsive, but inde pendent ; self-reliant, but deferential ; loving truth and candor, but also moderation and proportion ; courageous, but gentle ; not finished, but perfect ing. All authorities agree that true culture is not exclusive, sectarian, or partisan, but the very op posite ; that it is not to be attained in solitude, but in society ; and that the best atmosphere for culture is that of a school, university, academy, or church, where many pursue together the ideals of truth, righteousness, and love.

The gentleman could ride well, dance gracefully, 
and fence with skill. But the modern conception 
of bodily skill as an element in cultivation is 
more comprehensive, and includes that habitual 
contact with the external world which Emerson 
deemed essential to real culture. We have lately 
become convinced that accurate work with car 
penters tools, or lathe, or hammer and anvil, or 
violin, or piano, or pencil, or crayon, or camel s- 
hair brush, trains well the same nerves and gan 
glia with which we do what is ordinarily called 
thinking. We have also become convinced that 
some intimate, sympathetic acquaintance with 
the natural objects of the earth and sky adds 
greatly to the happiness of life, and that this ac 
quaintance should be begun in childhood and be 
developed all through adolescence and maturity. 
A brook, a hedgerow, or a garden is an inex 
haustible teacher of wonder, reverence, and love. 
8 

The scientists insist to-day on nature study for 
children ; but we teachers ought long ago to have 
learned from the poets the value of this element 
in education. They are the best advocates of na 
ture study. If any are not convinced of its worth, 
then let them go to Theocritus, Virgil, Words 
worth, Tennyson, or Lowell for the needed de 
monstration. Let them observe, too, that a great 
need of modern industrial society is intellectual 
pleasures, or pleasure which, like music, 
combines 
delightful sensations with the gratifications of 
observation, association, memory, and 
sympathy. 
The idea of culture has always included a quick 
and wide sympathy with men ; it should here 
after include sympathy with nature, and particu 
larly with its living forms, a sympathy based on 
some accurate observation of nature, The book 
worm, the monk, the isolated student, has never 
been the type of the cultivated man. Society has 
seemed the natural setting for the cultivated per 
son, man or woman ; but the present conception 
of real culture contains not only a large develop 
ment of this social element, but also an exten 
sion of interest and reverence to the animated 
9 


creation and to those immense forces that set 
the earthly stage for man and all related beings. 

Let us now proceed to examine some of the 
changes in the idea of culture, or in the available 
means of culture, which the last hundred years 
have brought about. 

I. The moral sense of the modern world makes 
character a more important element than it used 
to be in the ideal of a cultivated man. Now, char 
acter is formed, as Goethe said, in the "stream 
of the world" not in stillness or isolation, but 
in the quick-flowing tides of the busy world, the 
world of nature and the world of mankind. At 
the end of the nineteenth century the world was 
wonderfully different from the world at the begin 
ning of that eventful period ; and, moreover, 
mens 
means of making acquaintance with the world 
were vastly ampler than they were a hundred 
years 
earlier. To the old idea of culture some know 
ledge of history was indispensable. Now, history 
is a representation of the stream of the world, or 
of some little portion of that stream, one hundred, 
five hundred, two thousand years ago. Acquaint 
ance with some part of the present stream ought 
10 



to be more formative of character, and more in 
structive as regards external nature and the na 
ture of man, than any partial survey of the stream 
that was flowing centuries ago. We have, then, 
through the present means of reporting the 
stream of the world from day to day, material for 
culture such as no preceding generation of men 
has possessed. The cultivated man or woman 
must use the means which steam and electricity 
have provided for reporting the play of physical 
forces and of human volitions which make the 
world of to-day ; for the world of to-day supplies 
in its immense variety a picture of all stages of 
human progress, from the stone age, through 
savagery, barbarism, and mediaevalism, to what 
we now call civilization. The rising generation 
should think hard, and feel keenly, just where the 
men and women who constitute the actual human 
world are thinking and feeling most to-day. The 
panorama of to-day s events is not an accurate or 
complete picture, for history will supply posterity 
with much evidence which is hidden from the 
eyes of contemporaries ; but it is nevertheless an 
invaluable and a new means of developing good 



judgment, good feeling, and the passion for
 social 
service; or, in other words, of securing 
cultivation. But someone will say : The stream of the 
world is foul. True in part. The stream is, what 
it has been, a mixture of foulness and purity, of 
meanness and majesty ; but it has nourished indi 
vidual virtue and race civilization. Literature and 
history are a similar mixture, and yet are the tra 
ditional means of culture. Are not the Greek 
tragedies means of culture ? Yet they are full of 
incest, murder, and human sacrifices to lustful 
and revengeful gods. 

II. A cultivated man should express himself by 
tongue or pen with some accuracy and elegance ; 
therefore, linguistic training has had great impor 
tance in the idea of cultivation. The conditions 
of the educated world have, however, changed so 
profoundly since the revival of learning in Italy 
that our inherited ideas concerning training in 
language and literature have required large modi 
fications. In the year 1400, it might have been 
said with truth that there was but one language 
of scholars, the Latin, and but two great litera 
tures, the Hebrew and the Greek. Since that 
12 



THE CULTIVATED MAN 

time, however, other great literatures have arisen, 
the Italian, Spanish, French, German, and above 
all the English, which has become incomparably 
the most extensive and various and the noblest 
of literatures. Under these circumstances it is 
impossible to maintain that a knowledge of any 
particular literature is indispensable to culture. 
Yet we cannot but feel that the cultivated man 
ought to possess a considerable acquaintance 
with the literature of some great language, and 
the power to use the native language in a pure 
and interesting way. Thus, we are not sure that 
Robert Burns could be properly described as a 
cultivated man, moving poet though he was. We 
do not think of Abraham Lincoln as a cultivated 
man, master of English speech and writing 
though he was. These men do not correspond to 
the type represented by the word " cultivated," i 
but belong in the class of geniuses. When we 
ask ourselves why a knowledge of literature 
seems indispensable to the ordinary idea of cul 
tivation, we find no answer except this, that in 
literature are portrayed all human passions, de 
sires, and aspirations, and that acquaintance with 
 

these human feelings, and with the means of 
portraying them, seems to us essential to culture. 
These human qualities and powers are also the 
commonest ground of interesting human inter 
course, and therefore literary knowledge exalts 
the quality and enhances the enjoyment of hu 
man intercourse. It is in conversation that culti 
vation tells as much as anywhere, and this rapid 
exchange of thoughts is by far the commonest 
manifestation of its power. Combine the know 
ledge of literature with knowledge of the " stream 
of the world," and you have united two large 
sources of the influence of the cultivated person. 
The linguistic and literary element in cultivation 
therefore abides, but has become vastly broader 
than formerly ; so broad, indeed, that selection 
among its various fields is forced upon every 
educated youth. 

8 comentaris:

  1. repare-se que a grande literatura falha aos portugueses e a carradas de outros15 d’octubre de 2015 a les 16:02

    literatura russa jámé e japonesa? chiça Xiça 9 SS krupp 77 Xina

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    Respostes
    1. Tania Moura É bom, mas tem kilos de açúcar!... Curtir · Responder · 4 · 3 h Ocultar 16 respostas Giullia Calapez Giullia Calapez Apenas da fruta... Sem açúcares adicionados! Emoticon smile Curtir · Responder · 4 · 3 h Flávio Gart Flávio Gart É ler os ingredientes que vês é fruta desidratada e só sem adição de nada.. Curtir · Responder · 4 · 3 h Tania Moura Tania Moura Boa!! Então essa marca é das poucas que se aproveita... Obrigada pela info Curtir · Responder · 3 · 3 h Maria Manuel Gregório Maria Manuel Gregório Kilos de frutose Curtir · Responder · 1 · 2 h Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça esta moura aparece em todo o lado e acredita que a fruta não tem açúcar deve acreditar em hóstia sem hidratos de carbono Curtir · Responder · 17 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça e escreve-se tem quilocalorias de hidratos de carbono Curtir · Responder · 17 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça açúcares incluidos Curtir · Responder · 17 min Tania Moura Tania Moura Oliva agora em português...é que o seu linguajar é tão parco e desprovido de conteúdo, que nada daí se retira... Curtir · Responder · 1 · 11 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça HIDRATOS DE CARBONO FILHA É PORTUGUÊS BASTAVA TERES TIRADO O 9º ANO E SABIAS ISSO Curtir · Responder · 6 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça ESPERO QUE A MATÉRIA EM EDUCAÇÃO SEXUAL ATÉ AO 9º TENHA SIDO MELHOR SENÃO FARTAS-TE DE ABORTAR Curtir · Responder · 5 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça ....OS PONTINHOS INDICAM QUE HÁ MAIS A DIZER SE O LINGUAJAR FOSSE PARCO DE MOURAS ENCANTADAS COM UMA PIÇA DIGNA DO SOCRATES EXTRA-CHEESE NÃO RETIRAVAS O COUSO DA COISA Curtir · Responder · 3 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça E NADA DAÍ É OU UMA BRAÇADA MUITO LONGA Curtir · Responder · 3 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça QUILOS DE AÇÚCAR OU MESMO DE OUTROS HIDRATOS DE CARBONO COMO O AMIDO VÃO TODOS TRANSFORMAR-SE EM GLICOSE OU GLUCOSE POR VIA DIGESTIVA Curtir · Responder · 2 min Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça LOGO SE PASSASTE O 9º ANO DEVIAS SER MUITO BOA NAS PROVAS ORAIS ... Curtir · Responder · 1 minuto Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça É QUE NEM ÉS LOURA O SUFICIENTE PARA TERES A DESCULPA NÉ Curtir · Responder · 1 minuto Oliva Danódoa Groça Oliva Danódoa Groça MAS A SOFIA VELHINHO GRAMA-TE LOGO MESMO QUE A TUA LÍNGUA À MÍNGUA SEJA PARCA DESDE QUE SEJA PORCA ELA AGUENTA-TE AGUENTA-TE16 d’octubre de 2015 a les 16:54

      THE CULTIVATED WOMAN DEVE ENGRUPIR AÇÚCARES AOS KILOS MAS A SOFIA VELHINHO GRAMA-TE LOGO MESMO QUE A TUA LÍNGUA À MÍNGUA SEJA PARCA DESDE QUE SEJA PORCA ELA AGUENTA-TE AGUENTA-TE
      Curtir · Responder · 15 min
      Oliva Danódoa Groça
      Oliva Danódoa Groça TÂNIA MOURA É PESO PESADO MAS SÓ NO BOXE
      Curtir · Responder · 15 min
      Oliva Danódoa Groça
      Oliva Danódoa Groça DAÍ TERES ENGRUPIDO ( TAMBÉM É PORTUGUEZ E NEM SEQUER ARCAICO) QUILOS OU KILOS DE HIDRATOS DE CARBONO ...DOCES A QUE CHAMAMOS SUCRES ...OU MAIS PANIFICÁVEIS AMIDO E CELULOSE INCLUIDO ...SÓ AS VACAS DIGEREM CELULOSE E A TRANSFORMAM EM AÇÚCARES LIVRES ...AS RESTANTES VACAS PORTUGUESAS NÃO RUMINANTES DEVEM COMER BUÉ DE CELULOSE ,,,OU FIBRA EM BOM PORTUGUÊS
      Curtir · Responder · 10 min
      Oliva Danódoa Groça
      Oliva Danódoa Groça E ESCREVE-SE QUILOS KILO NÃO É PORTUGUÊS É ARCAISMO TOMADO DE OUTRA LÍNGUA PARCA E PORCA
      Curtir · Responder · 9 min
      Oliva Danódoa Groça
      Oliva Danódoa Groça BOLAS PÁ SER MOURA ENCANTADA AINDA VÁ MAS VIR-SE PARA O FAKEFUCK SEM UM DIPLOMA DE LYCEU OU MESMO DUM POLITÉCNICO DE 2ª A USAR A LÍNGUA PARCA DUM ANALFA BETO PARECE MAL
      Curtir · Responder · 6 min
      Oliva Danódoa Groça
      Oliva Danódoa Groça E A MOURA ENCANTADA COM A LÍNGUA PARCA E PORCA QUE SE AVIZINHA NA CANTADA FÁCIL DA PROVA ORAL METEU MAIS UNS HIDRATOS DE CARBONO PARA ENGROSSAR AS COXAS GROSSAS NA VERTIGEM DOS AÇÚCARES QUE AINDA NÃO TINHAM SIDO HIDROLISADOS PELAS AMILASES SALIVARES NA LÍNGUA PARCA E PORCA ACONTECEM GERALMENTE TAIS AZARES
      Curtir · Responder ·

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  2. XAU é bóptimo EZeKiEl rules watch tower farmville19 d’octubre de 2015 a les 11:29

    a força da chuva que tudo arrasta o tipo de sistemas radiculares nativos ou importados o escasso coberto vegetal são uma das razões da falta de protecção da agregação dos solos filipinos ou de quaisquer outros sob regimes torrenciais

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    Respostes
    1. o partido como congregação de cassetes inaudíveis
      Curtir · Responder · 1 minuto
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio o partido como congregação de cassetes inaudíveis DE AUDIÇÃO OBRIGATÓRIA ...ONDÉ QUEU JÁ OUVI ISTO?
      Curtir · Responder · Agora mesmo
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio

      Escreva uma resposta...

      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio é SÓ SABER OUVIR OS PARTEI Daniel Oliveira O Fidelis já teve 20 avatares. Vais ser bloqueado como todos os outros foram.
      1 · 4 min,,,é simples criar emprego primeiro fazes um fluviário depois arranjas um gajo com um nome de engenheiro agrónomo do tempo d'el rey dom carlos para o gerir con tratas romenos para fazerem o fluviário arranjas emprego a uma data de pessoal o resto que emigre ou peça a reforma
      Curtir · Responder · 1 h
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio SÓ 20 DEVO JÁ IR NOS 500 AVATAR É UM LIVRO DE POUL ANDERSON SUPONGO
      Curtir · Responder · 57 min
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio

      Escreva uma resposta...

      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio erro a mesma esquerda que arranja lugares aos seus fiéis desde 1974 e que cria empregos a rodos mas não para todos de resto tal como a direita PPM incluido e do PAN nem se fala associações de defesa e do ambiente chupam milhões e dão emprego a milhares de engenheiros zootécnicus desde 1984 e veternários claro
      Curtir · Responder · 1 h
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio
      Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio BASTA AO FANÁTICO CONSEGUIR-SE OUVIR A ELE PRÓPRIO E AS 69 VIRGENS SERÃO DELE

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    2. em VERDADE VOS DIGO O MAR ESCAVA NA BRUTA ROCHA CAVERNAS20 d’octubre de 2015 a les 12:23

      COLOSSAIS E GRUTAS E BURACÕES DEFICITÁRIOS ENORMES E NESSAS BRUTAS GRUTAS HERDS OF SEALS AND OTHER SURVIVORS OF THE LAST ICE AGE OR TV SERIES SHELTER FROM THE INCLEMENT WINTERSEAS FROSTBITE 5 YHFCB

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    3. NU NO BOIS DA GAMMA RAY EM CADA BRUTA PEDRA HÁ UMA LENDA

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    4. SAIBA BOSSA EXCELENÇA QUE É CAPAZ DE TER RAZÓN ...CORRIDA? MAS OS GAJOS INDA SE MEXEM? A IRONIA É UMA FIGURA DE ESTILO POLÍTICO OU DE PENSAMENTO POLÍTICO OU MESMO DE FALTA DELE QUE LEVA OS MESSIAS E OUTROS AVATARES POLITICUS A SUGERIREM COUSA DIVERSA DAQUILO QUE A FRASE DO SALAZAR DE SERVIÇO EXPRIME ....ANALISEMOS A FINA IRONIA DA FRASE ,,,POLÍTICO CHOCADO COM OUTRO POLÍTICO QUE DE FORMA IRREVOGÁVEL LANÇOU O FUTURO DO SEU PARTIDO E ATÉ O PRESENTE PELA JANELA FORA OU ATÉ PELA GAVETA DENTRO PARA CONSEGUIR SOBREVIVER COMO FIGURINHA POLÍTICA MAIS UNS MESES OU MESMO UNS ANNUS HORRIBILIS DESDE QUE O BRUTUS ESPETOU O ANTERIOR LÍDER PARTIDÁRIO CURIOSAMENTE EM AMBOS OS CASOS UM QUATRO-OLHOS CABELUDO CHAME-SE ELE MONTEIRO OU SE VÁ POR UM NOME MAIS SEGURO NUMA UNIVERSIDADE QUALQUER ONDE NINGUÉM LHES DÁ CAVACO EXCEPTO OS MAIS FIÉIS DOS FIÉIS O QUE EM POLÍTICA TANTO PODE SER UM HESS QUALQUER OU UM HERMAN GOERING A PRECISAR DE PERDER PESO OU MESMO DER TRUE HEINRICH OR A LESSER RICH HIMMLERIANUS ....O ARSÉNICO TAL COMO A POLÍTICA ATÉ ENGORDA A FINA IRONIA ATÉ A TORNAR GROSSA .... Curtir · Responder · 13 min · Editado Terezentos Nunes Boïss Terezentos Nunes Boïss RESUMINDO COMO EXERCÍCIO DE ESTILO JORNALÍSTICO É FRACOTE MAS EM TERMOS DE TWITTER DEVE SER EXCELENTE Curtir · Responder · 12 min Terezentos Nunes Boïss Terezentos Nunes Boïss O ARSÉNICO ATÉ,,,,- ENGORDA TAMBÉM, NÃO É VERDADE ? PERGUNTOU O TENDEIRO COM AMARGA IRONIA NA VOZ ...JULIUS LE DINIZ NUMA JOAHNES SEMANADA QUALQUER Curtir · Responder · 7 min Terezentos Nunes Boïss Terezentos Nunes Boïss AS PILAS DO SENHOR REY THOR SUPONGO MAS NÃO ASSEGURO SER DE TAL MONTEIRO Curtir · Responder · 6 min Terezentos Nunes Boïss Terezentos Nunes Boïss CÁ POR MI US DOUS GAJOS INDA SE JUNTAM IRREVOGAVELMENTE E TÊM MUITOS MENINOS E VIVEM FELIZES PRA SEMPRE ...SE BEM QUE VÃO TER MUITOS PROBLEMAS PRA VER QUEM FICA POR BAIXO Curtir · Responder · Agora mesmo Terezentos Nunes Boïss Escreva uma resposta... Terezentos Nunes Boïss Terezentos Nunes Boïss QUANDO A LUZ NASCE A SOMBRA SOMBRIA PRINCIPIA ,,,,,ABRI AS PORTAS E DESFRUTAI DO DIA ......NA POLÍTICA SÓ SE SOBREVIVE COM AZIA Curtir · Responder · Agora mesmo20 d’octubre de 2015 a les 13:35

      E SE CALHAR ATÉ NON ....ONE OF ELEVEN FAZIA CALOR A POEIRA QUE COBRIA OS CAMINHOS ERA ESPESSA E MORNA E ANUNCIAVA A CATÁSTROFE QUE COBRIU DE SANGUE NEGRO A NEGRA LISBOA

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    5. ESTA GAJO NÃO FOI PURGADO? Fidelis Purga Calpúrnio CHAMA-SE CORRIDA A UM MAGOTE DE VELHADAS EM CADEIRAS DE RODAS NO CIMO DUMA FALÉSIA ? NÃO É MAIS EXTERMÍNIO NOS MONTES HERMÍNIOS
      Curtir · Responder · Ontem às 21:06 JATROPA PURGA ,,OU PURGUEIRA RICINUS COMUNNIS OU MESMO COMUNISTA TAMBÉM RESOLVE O PROBLEMA

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