dijous, 2 de juny de 2016

The Jew and human sacrifice; human blood and Jewish ritual, an historical and sociological inquiry...On 6th June, 1755, K. G. Zeibig, who when drunk had murdered a man, was beheaded on the Eabenstein at Dresden. . . . Before the execution two foremen of the tailor fraternity at Dresden l)egged the Prime Minister, Count Heinr. v. Briihl, on behalf of their brother member, Joh. Ge. Wiedemann, who suf- fered severely from epilepsy, that the same be allowed to drink the blood of the murderer for his restoration to health. An entry in the register announces that Briihl assented to the request, and also that Wiede- mann, after drinking the blood of the individual beheaded, ' ran off.' " Th. Distel, " Neues Archiv fiir Sachsische Geschichte u. Alterthumskunde," IX. [Dresden, 1888] 160, rightly adds : '' It is remarkable in this connection that even the highest official should have granted the request for the drinking of such human blood, and thus simply promoted crass super- stition." For more about this superstition readers are directed to " Breslauer Sammlungen 1721 June; ^ Winterquartal ' 1721, pp. 654-7, class IV., art 17: Cf. also Oct. 1720, class IV. art. 9." He also refers to the article "Epilepsie," in Zedlers " Universallexikon." Carl Lehmann, " Chronik der freien Bergstadt Schneeberg" III. (Schneeberg, 1840), 299 describes the execution at Zwickau of the murderer Karl Heinr. Friedrich on 15th Dec, 1823 (Cf. inf. ch. 12). He says at the end : " And with our own eyes we saw how a pot full of the blood of the executed man was drunk dry by various persons, and how these persons, mostly children, were driven with blows from whips to run at utmost speed over the field." .The story of the foundation of the Schongau Bad at the Lindenberg relates how a libertine, having become leprous, wanted to bathe in the blood of twelve virgins, so as to be healed, but, after he had already killed eleven, he was despatched by the brother of the twelfth, whom he had already chained up. E. L. Rochholz, "Schweizersagen aus dem Aargau," I. (Argau, 1856)..Valerius Anshelm (from 1520 onward, municipal physician at Berne) narrates of Louis XL, King of France (146L83), in his "Berner Chronik," I. (Berne, 1825), 320: " Now, when he was very ill, he seeks for and tries everything, especially much children's blood because of his illness." G. Daniel, " Histoire de France," IX. (1755), 413: "II avoit recours a tons les remedes naturels et surnaturels; et pour le guerir, dit un Historien contemporain, furent faites de ter- ribles et merveilleuses medecines. Un autre dit plus en particulier, qu'on luy fit boire du sang, qu'on avoit tire a plusieurs enfans, dans I'esperance que cette potion pourroit corriger I'acrete du sien, et retablir son ancienne vigueur." (In the margin as authority : "Gaguin," who wrote about 1498.. He described, as from personal experience, with much bokiness, what ills could be cured by the use of human brain, flesh and liver; or, again, the bones of the human skull, fibula, and fingers, some burnt, some unburnt; or, lastly, by the use of blood. ... He writes also what effect dung may have, if it is smeared on wounds and into the oesophagus, and is swallowed. He speaks also of the internal use of ear-wax. . . . The most nauseous, however, is the dung and the drinking of the menses. . . . Less abominable is the outward application of excrement or of sperma. Xenocrates distinguishes with great nicety the potential effects of sperma by itself, or of the sperma which flows out of the vagina after coitus." Galen goes on to relate that doctors employ the blood of pigeons, owls, cocks, lambs, and goats, but declares that these and many other remedies taken from the animal kingdom are partly directly rejectable, partly superflous, since there are numerous well-tested remedies. I was at first of the opinion that the anonymous " Hauss-Apothec " was merely the expression of the beliefs which at that time obtained in popular medi- cine; but in 1892 I convinced myself that its contents were believed in among wide circles of PHYSICIANS even after the middle of the eighteenth century. Take such a book as the " Neu-Vermehrte, Heil- same Dreck-Apotheke, wie nemlich mit Koth und Urin Fast alle, ja auch die schwerste gifftigste Kranck- heiten, und bezauberte Schaden,vom Haupt bis zun Ftissen, inn- und ausserlich, gliicklich curiret wor- den; Durch und durch mit allerhand curieusen, so ntitz- als ergetzlichen Historien und Anmerckungen, * "Ilcpt rwv aTrXwv (fiapfxaKOiv (cpao-cw? koi Svi/a/iew?," xi, 1. Opera ed. C. G. Kilhn XII. (L. 1826), 249 sq. ; done into German in L. I xraelso??, " Die 'materia medica ' des Klaudios Galenos," Juryew (Dorpat), 1894, 176. 26 The Jew and Human Sacrifice auch andern Feinen Denckwiirdigkeiten, Abermals bewahrt, und iim ein merckliches vermehrt, und verbessert. Von Kristian Frantz Paullini. Franckfurt ain Mayn, 1697 " (420 and 207 pp.).* This work is now regarded almost exclusively as a characteristic example of a dirty and ridiculous superstition which died out two centuries ago. But the assumption is wrong. For the author, who was born 25th February, 1643, received, after prolonged medical studies and much travelling, an honourable invitation to a professorship at Pisa, which only illness obliged him to decline. Later, after he had practised in Hamburg and in Holstein, he became body physician and historiographer to Bishop Christoph Bernhard in Miinster, and remained in that position till the death of his patron in 1678. He then stayed in Wolfenbiittel and Hameln, till in 1689 he was appointed physician to his native town, Eisen- ach ; he died as such on 10th June, 1712. As regards his busy literary activity in the domains of poetic art, natural science and medicine, and also historical research, I refer to /. Moller, " Cimbria literata II.," (Copenhagen, 1744), 622-633, and K. F. H. Marx, "Zur Beurtheilung cles Arztes Christian Franz Paullini," Gottingen, 1872 (39). (" Abhandlungen der Got- tinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, vol. 18.") Among other things, the latter says : " Medicine takes a different shape with almost ever^T- century; so the remains of the past, however fantastic, should not be regarded as contemptible," and P.'s name deserved to be mentioned " as that of a thinking, learned, well- meaning doctor, and one of the most industrious men of his time." Joh. Chr. Schroder (1600-1664, Cf. Poggendorf, * The first edition: " Heilsame Dreck-Apotheke " (Frankfort a. M. 1696) is not within my reach. A third edition appeared in 1713. Bibliography 27 " Biographisch-litter. Worterbuch zur Geschichte der exakten Wissenschaften," II., 843), a physician of "Westphalian origin, who practised in Frankfort a. Main, compiled a thesaurus of drugs, which was commented on by Friedr. Hoffmann, the elder, a physician in Halle (d. 1675) : " Clavis pharmaceutica Joh. Schroederi cum thesauro pharmaceutico (Halle, 1681)." A German translation first appeared in Nuremberg, 1685. Its second edition consists of a folio covering more than 1,500 pages: " Vollstandige und Nutzreiche iVpotheke. Das ist: D. Johannis Schroederi treflich-versehener Medicin-Chymischer hochstkost- bahrer Artzney-Schatz Nebst D. Friderici Hoffmanni darliber verfassete herrliche Anmerckungen als eine Grund-Feste beybehalten: So nun aber . . . aus denen itziger Zeit Fiirtrefilichen und Berlihmtesten Medicorum und anderer Gelahrtesten . . . Schriff- ten .... Zusammengetragen und vermehret. . . . Auf vieles und unablassiges Verlangen Teut- scher Nation zu sonderem Nutzen eroffnet von G. D. Koschivitz, M.D.S.P.," Nuremberg, 1693 (Koschwitz is presumably the Georg Daniel Koschwitz who died in Halle, 1729, Professor of Medicine).— Ch. 33 of Book II. (pp. 82 sq.), which treats of the chemist's shops, is headed: "On the blood." The text observes: "In the chemist's shops one certainly finds no blood; 3-et it is customary at times to use them (bloods), especi- ally when they are still fresh," and there follows an enumeration of various bloods : of ducks, geese, asses, dogs, pigeons, horses, goats, men, menstruating women, hares, partridges, oxen and turtle-doves. — In Book v., the " iVnimal science," is a 20-page section devoted to man. It begins p. 31: "The natural apothecary articles. These are taken either from the still living body, and are : The hairs

In Foo- chow at the beginning of the month, occurred the
execution of a pirate. After the criminal had been
made a head shorter, the executioner opened the
corpse with his sword, tore out the liver and distributed it in pieces among his assistants. The fact is
that the liver of persons who have been hurried into
the bej^ond by the executioner's sword is deemed a
radical cure for various illnesses, especially consumption." (Voss. Zeitung, 26 Aug., 1892
Two evidences for the attitude of medical 
science. The celebrated physician, Theoyhrastus Paracelsus von Hohenheim (1493-1541), 
mentions as remedies for leprosy: 
" Dosis sanguinis humani, semel in mense in 
secunda die post oppositionem." Even the Ziirich 
professor and municipal physician, J . v. Muralt, 
prescribes in the "Hippocrates Helveticus, Basel, 
1692,  human blood for hereditary scab. 

3 comentaris:

  1. Vers la mi-mai .... des bruits alarmants furent mis en circulation : des enfants avaient disparus. lis avaient ete voles par des gens a la solde des missionaires. Les soeurs les avaient tues. Elles leur avaient arrache les yeux et le coeur pour preparer des charmes et des remedes. Ce n'etait pas la premiere fois que se disaient de pareilles absurdites. 393 : Les accusations se multiplierent. On cita des faits et on y crut Le hasard semblait conspirer avec les auteurs de ces bruits sinistres. Une epidemie se declara a Torphelinat des soeurs. Plusieurs enfants moururent .... 397 (June): 84 The Jew and Human Sacrifice Deux chinois etrangers portaient un sac sur les epaules et conduisaient par la main deux petits enfants . On les arreta. Dans leurs sacs furent trouves des dollars mexi- cains . . . . et quelques paquets de drogues. Mis a la torture, ils declarereut avoir effectivement ensorcele les enfants au moyen de ces drogues. Les dollars leur avaient ete donnes par les soeurs en paiement du crime. Les deux hommes, convaincus sur leur propre aveu d'un crime commis a I'instiga- tion des soeurs, furent condamues a mort et executes. C'etait implicitemeut condamuer les soeurs et rendre un arret de mort coutre les Europeens. 399: Plusieurs cadavres furent exhumes et examines. A quelques-uns les yeux manquaient : cet effet naturel de la decomposition fut interprete comme une preuve convaincante de la culpabilite des soeurs et des missionaires. 400-3 : The lying statements of Wu-lan-tchen about the magic means by which the missionaries attract people (retracted after the massacre, v. 437). On 21 June occurred the butchery. 426 sq. : Une femme fut jetee dans la riviere et retiree apres qu'elle eut promis de deposer contre les soeurs (deja massacrees !) et de declarer avoir ete ensorcelee par elles. Everybody knows that in 1891, and in later years persecutions, due to the same cause, of Europeans living in China, especially of missionaries, have taken place. Towards the end of 1891 a charge was brought in Madagascar against the foreigners, particularly the French, that they devoured human hearts, and for this purpose bought and killed children. Hence a decree of the Malagasy Government, which states amongst other things: " (1) Aucun etranger, ni Anglais, ni Fran9ais, ni d'aucune autre nation, ne cherche a acheter des coeurs humains. Si des gens mal intentionnes repandent ce bruit et disent que les etrangers achetent des coeurs humains, saisissez-les, attachez-les et faites les monter a Tananarive pour y etre juges. (2) Si on repand des bruits quels qu'ils soient, il est de votre devoir, gouverneurs, de reuuir le peuple, de I'avertir et de lui prouver le faussete de ces bruits, qui sont formellement interdits dans le royaume ; c'est un crime de les propager," v. the Paris paper Le Temps, 1 Feb., and 25 March, 1892. IX. ANIMAL BLOOD A . The blood of sacrificed victims has a special position to itself. Attention may in the first place be draAvn to the well-known necromantic episode in Odyssey, Bk. XL According to ancient and wide- spread belief, inspiration is produced by sucking the fresh blood of a sacrificed victim, v. Frazer, "The Golden Bough," 2nd Ed., L, 133-5. As regards Egypt V. sup. p. 5.2 de juny de 2016 a les 10:51

    If a man has lost his manhood:
    If thou art bewitched by a woman, so that thou dost
    not wish to have to do with any other, take he-goat's
    blood, and smear the testicles therewith, then wilt
    thou be right again." Jahn, No. 604 (after " Albertus
    Magnus .... Geheimnisse," cf. sup. p. 3, a book
    very widely disseminated in Pomerania).— " That
    people may love one: Carry bat's blood about
    you (Swinemiinde)," Jahn, No. 612 (after A. Kuhn
    and W. Schwartz, " Norddeutsche Sagen, Marchen u.
    Gebrauche," L., 1848, No. 448).

    (Prussia). FrischUer, 22: "In Lithuania such
    [ill-behaved] children are given three drops of blood,
    which has been taken from the left ear of a black
    sheep or lamb." 73 : " In Samland a remedy for convul-
    sions consists of drinking three drops of blood from a
    young sow which has littered for the first time, and a
    portion is given in the name of God the Father, etc."
    94 : " If w^arts are thrice pressed with a bleeding pike's
    head which has just been cut off, and the head is then
    buried beneath the eaves, the warts vanish as soon as
    the pike's head rots (Donhoffstadt)."— ZmA;^.
    "Ostpreussen," II., 278: "For all manner of convul-
    sions, but not for epileptic a potion is

    recommended, composed of Hungarian wine and
    (raw) hare's blood. (The hare's blood is collected and
    kept for a long time with this object in view.")

  2. She was
    also given to supposed magic, and had a peculiar
    magic mirror in the shape of a cracknel, before which
    she used to pray for hours at a time. Finally her
    cruelty reached such a pitch that she pinched her
    servants and stuck pins into them, especially the girls
    who drove with her in her carriage. She had one of
    her serving-maids stripped naked and smeared with
    honey, in order that she might be eaten up by flies.
    When she became ill and could not practise her usual
    cruelties, she had a person come to her sick bed, and
    bit her like a wild cat. About 650 girls lost their lives
    through her in the way described, partly in Cseita (in
    the County of Neutrau, in Hungary), where she had a
    cellar specially arranged for the purpose, partly in
    other places ; for murder and bloodshed had become a
    necessity to her. When so many girls from the neigh-
    bourhood, who were brought into the castle on the
    pretext of entering service or of receiving further
    education, disappeared, and the parents never
    received satisfactory, but generally ambiguous,
    answers to their enquiries, the matter became
    suspicious. . . . At last, by bribing the servants,
    it was discovered that the missing girls went hale
    and hearty into the cellar, and never made their
    appearance any more. A denunciation followed both
    at Court and to the then Count Palatine Thurzo. The
    Count had the castle of Cseita surprised, commenced
    the strictest investigations, and discovered the
    horrible murders. The monster was condemned to
    life long incarceration for the terrible crimes, but her
    accomplices were executed."*